Linux 系统管理及IPC资源管理

Linux 系统管理及IPC资源管理

系统管理

查询系统版本

  • 查看Linux系统版本:
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[root@caoxl ~]# uname -a
Linux caoxl 3.10.0-862.9.1.el7.x86_64 #1 SMP Mon Jul 16 16:29:36 UTC 2018 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

# 或者
lsb_release -a

查询硬件信息

  • 查看CPU使用情况:
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[root@caoxl ~]# sar -u 5 10
Linux 3.10.0-862.9.1.el7.x86_64 (caoxl) 08/24/2018 _x86_64_ (1 CPU)

10:26:12 AM CPU %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle
10:26:17 AM all 0.20 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 99.60
10:26:22 AM all 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 99.80
10:26:27 AM all 0.40 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 99.40
10:26:32 AM all 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.80 0.00 99.00
10:26:37 AM all 0.20 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 99.60
10:26:42 AM all 0.20 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 99.60
10:26:47 AM all 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00
10:26:52 AM all 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 99.80
10:26:57 AM all 0.20 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 99.60
10:27:02 AM all 0.20 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 99.60
Average: all 0.18 0.00 0.14 0.08 0.00 99.60
  • 查询CPU信息:
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[root@caoxl ~]# cat /proc/cpuinfo
processor : 0
vendor_id : GenuineIntel
cpu family : 6
model : 79
model name : Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2682 v4 @ 2.50GHz
stepping : 1
microcode : 0x1
cpu MHz : 2499.996
cache size : 40960 KB
physical id : 0
siblings : 1
core id : 0
cpu cores : 1
apicid : 0
initial apicid : 0
fpu : yes
fpu_exception : yes
cpuid level : 13
wp : yes
flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss syscall nx pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc rep_good nopl eagerfpu pni pclmulqdq ssse3 fma cx16 pcid sse4_1 sse4_2 x2apic movbe popcnt tsc_deadline_timer aes xsave avx f16c rdrand hypervisor lahf_lm abm 3dnowprefetch ibrs ibpb stibp fsgsbase tsc_adjust bmi1 hle avx2 smep bmi2 erms invpcid rtm rdseed adx smap xsaveopt spec_ctrl intel_stibp
bogomips : 4999.99
clflush size : 64
cache_alignment : 64
address sizes : 46 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
power management:
  • 查看CPU的核的个数:
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[root@caoxl ~]# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep processor | wc -l
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  • 查看内存信息:
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[root@caoxl ~]# cat /proc/meminfo
MemTotal: 1015436 kB
MemFree: 117588 kB
MemAvailable: 526340 kB
Buffers: 77540 kB
Cached: 426928 kB
SwapCached: 0 kB
Active: 641068 kB
Inactive: 138596 kB
Active(anon): 275492 kB
Inactive(anon): 2368 kB
Active(file): 365576 kB
Inactive(file): 136228 kB
Unevictable: 0 kB
Mlocked: 0 kB
SwapTotal: 0 kB
SwapFree: 0 kB
Dirty: 16 kB
Writeback: 0 kB
AnonPages: 275228 kB
Mapped: 37868 kB
Shmem: 2664 kB
Slab: 84628 kB
SReclaimable: 69448 kB
SUnreclaim: 15180 kB
KernelStack: 2928 kB
PageTables: 10428 kB
NFS_Unstable: 0 kB
Bounce: 0 kB
WritebackTmp: 0 kB
CommitLimit: 507716 kB
Committed_AS: 890020 kB
VmallocTotal: 34359738367 kB
VmallocUsed: 8812 kB
VmallocChunk: 34359719676 kB
HardwareCorrupted: 0 kB
AnonHugePages: 57344 kB
CmaTotal: 0 kB
CmaFree: 0 kB
HugePages_Total: 0
HugePages_Free: 0
HugePages_Rsvd: 0
HugePages_Surp: 0
Hugepagesize: 2048 kB
DirectMap4k: 63360 kB
DirectMap2M: 985088 kB
DirectMap1G: 0 kB
  • 显示内存page大小(以KByte为单位):
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[root@caoxl ~]# pagesize
4096

# 安装pagesize
[root@caoxl ~]# yum search pagesize
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
===================================== Matched: pagesize ======================================
libhugetlbfs-utils.x86_64 : Userspace utilities for configuring the hugepage environment

[root@caoxl ~]# yum install -y libhugetlbfs-utils
  • 显示架构:
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[root@caoxl ~]# arch
x86_64

设置系统时间

  • 显示当前系统时间:
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[root@caoxl ~]# date
Fri Aug 24 10:31:05 CST 2018
  • 设置系统日期和时间(格式为2018-8-24 10:30:00):
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date -s 2018-8-24 10:30:00
date -s 2018-8-24
date -s 10:30:00
  • 设置时区:
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选择时区信息。命令为:tzselect
根据系统提示,选择相应的时区信息。

[root@caoxl ~]# tzselect
Please identify a location so that time zone rules can be set correctly.
Please select a continent or ocean.
1) Africa
2) Americas
3) Antarctica
4) Arctic Ocean
5) Asia
6) Atlantic Ocean
7) Australia
8) Europe
9) Indian Ocean
10) Pacific Ocean
11) none - I want to specify the time zone using the Posix TZ format.
  • 强制把系统时间写入CMOS(这样,重启后时间也正确了):
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[root@caoxl ~]# clock -w

设置系统时间需要root用户权限.

  • 格式化输出当前日期时间:
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[root@caoxl ~]# date +%Y%m%d.%H%M%S
20180824.103400

IPC资源管理

IPC资源查询

  • 查看系统使用的IPC资源:
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[root@caoxl ~]# ipcs

------ Message Queues --------
key msqid owner perms used-bytes messages

------ Shared Memory Segments --------
key shmid owner perms bytes nattch status

------ Semaphore Arrays --------
key semid owner perms nsems
  • 查看系统使用的IPC共享内存资源:
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[root@caoxl ~]# ipcs -m

------ Shared Memory Segments --------
key shmid owner perms bytes nattch status
  • 查看系统使用的IPC队列资源:
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[root@caoxl ~]# ipcs -q

------ Message Queues --------
key msqid owner perms used-bytes messages
  • 查看系统使用的IPC信号量资源:
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[root@caoxl ~]# ipcs -s

------ Semaphore Arrays --------
key semid owner perms nsems

应用示例:查看IPC资源被谁占用

有个IPCKEY:51036 ,需要查询其是否被占用;

  1. 首先通过计算器将其转为十六进制:

51036 -> c75c

  1. 如果知道是被共享内存占用:
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[root@caoxl ~]# ipcs -m | grep c75c
  1. 如果不确定,则直接查找:
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[root@caoxl ~]# ipcs | grep c75c

检测和设置系统资源限制

  • 显示当前所有的系统资源 limit 信息:
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[root@caoxl ~]# ulimit -a
core file size (blocks, -c) 0
data seg size (kbytes, -d) unlimited
scheduling priority (-e) 0
file size (blocks, -f) unlimited
pending signals (-i) 3883
max locked memory (kbytes, -l) 64
max memory size (kbytes, -m) unlimited
open files (-n) 65535
pipe size (512 bytes, -p) 8
POSIX message queues (bytes, -q) 819200
real-time priority (-r) 0
stack size (kbytes, -s) 8192
cpu time (seconds, -t) unlimited
max user processes (-u) 65535
virtual memory (kbytes, -v) unlimited
file locks (-x) unlimited
  • 对生成的 core 文件的大小不进行限制:
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[root@caoxl ~]# ulimit -c unlimited

总结

uname sar arch date ipcs ulimit

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